Cougar Clippings
Articles, opinions, and editorials about mountain lions and the Mountain Lion Foundation.
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Possible Unjustified Killing of a Mountain Lion by San Bernardino Sheriff Deputies (7/14/2014)
In what may turn out to be a violation of state law, San Bernardino County Sheriff's Deputies killed a juvenile mountain lion in Rancho Cucamonga (near Los Angeles, California) over the weekend.

Just before 7:00 a.m., Saturday morning, the San Bernardino County Sheriffs Department received a report of two mountain lions jumping from backyard to backyard in the 8800 block of Somerset Drive. Responding deputies from the Rancho Cucamonga station searched the neighborhood and spotted a lion climbing a fence. As they watched, the animal proceeded on its way through several backyards, until they eventually lost sight of it.

With a verified mountain lion sighting, local animal control officers and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife were contacted to assist with the situation.

About 40-minutes later, another report came into the Department of a lion in the backyard of a home in the 6300 block of Moonstone Avenue.

Photo of mountain lion laying on block wall in backyard.When Sheriff's Deputies arrived on the scene, they found a subadult female mountain lion, weighing approximately 50 to 75 pounds hiding in the backyard.

After watching the animal for a short period of time, the responding deputies decided the lion was a threat to public safety and shot it.

According to a statement from the San Bernardino County Sheriff's Department, "The responding public safety personnel maintained a respectful and non-threatening distance to observe and assess the animal. Based on the imminent threat to public safety; at 8:19 a.m., a deputy humanely shot the mountain lion. The animal expired of the single gunshot wound immediately and a necropsy will be conducted."

Sheriff's Department Spokesperson Cindy Bachman said lethal force was used because deputies don't carry tranquilizers. "These are occupied homes, and just a few homes away from where the mountain lion was shot, there were children playing in the backyard," Bachman said.

According to Tim Dunbar, Executive Director for the Mountain Lion Foundation, "California's new mountain lion public safety law requires the use of non-lethal procedures when dealing with a mountain lion that comes into contact with humans, unless the lion displays signs of aggressive behavior. Where was the aggressive behavior? I sympathize with the dilemma these officers faced, a wild animal that might not stay contained, and no means to tranquilize it; but I'm not sure, based on the Sheriff's own statement why they couldn't wait for officers from the California Department of Fish and Wildlife to arrive on scene and assist in the capture. Why couldn't the neighborhood have been canvassed and citizens asked to remain safely indoors until the danger had passed—as happened recently in Sacramento. The excuse of 'nearby children' has long been the standard of many police and sheriff departments to justify killing wandering lions, because they don't know how else to handle these situations."

California Department of Fish and Wildlife also has a new internal policy to advise their staff on mountain lion calls. Responding officers notify a special guidance team that assists — day or night — with decision making, calling in additional experts like local veterinarians and lion researchers, and finding an appropriate location to release the lion back into the wild. Because of the new law and CDFW's mountain lion Response Guidance Team, so far this year five potential public safety lions have been relocated back into the wild. Unfortunately, this past weekend, because a CDFW officer did not arrive on site, the team was never contacted.

As for the second lion. There have been no other sightings and canvasing deputies were unable to spot any sign of additional lions. According to the San Bernardino County Sheriff's Department, it is "fairly certain it was one mountain lion traveling throughout this neighborhood." The young female lion likely wandered out of the adjacent Angeles National Forest.
(Article #1534) To read the actual news story click here...

USDA Wildlife Services Allow Trapped Lion to Die a Slow, Painful Death (7/8/2014)
Nebraska's Game and Parks Commission announced that a young, possibly female, mountain lion was accidentally captured and killed in a leghold snare set by USDA Wildlife Services trappers.

The snare, apparently set to capture coyotes in a cattle pasture, did what many opponents to this capture method claim too often happens: it trapped an unintended victim, and was not properly monitored to reduce the cruel and inhumane suffering that the captured mountain lion experienced as it slowly died of thirst and starvation.

By the time the dead lion was discovered, it had already begun to decompose to the point the trapper could not determine if it was a male or female. Preliminary reports suggest a young female, but the carcass will be sent to a lab for further analysis.

During just 2013 in Nebraska, USDA Wildlife Services killed 347 wild animals captured in foothold traps, and another 98 with the use of neck snares. Traps are supposed to be checked daily, but even so, it does not guarantee a mountain lion accidentally trapped will not die as a result.

Back in 2008, over the course of just a few weeks, North Dakota reported the unintentional death of three mountain lions accidentally caught in bobcat snares. (Article #1533) To read the actual news story click here...

Second Tranquilized Lion Dies in Utah (7/1/2014)
The mountain lion captured Friday morning in Sandy, Utah by Utah Division of Wildlife Resources (UDWR) officers died sometime Saturday while under UDWR's care.

According to Scott Root, a UDWR outreach manager, the lion died while under the effect of the tranquilizer and UDWR biologists will perform an analysis to determine if there were any health factors that may have contributed to the death of the animal.

Mr. Root went on to say that "The fact that this cougar was in a highly populated area suggests that something may not have been normal with this animal."

UDWR's efforts to place the blame for its own death onto the lion appear to be a little disingenuous. Few biologists would characterize a mountain lion wandering into a developed area as "abnormal behavior." In actuality, lion experts have been explaining for decades that, "dispersing mountain lions move along the wildland-urban edge with frequent forays into peninsulas of habitat that intrude into urban areas." Though they "do not seek out urban habitat, [...] mountain lions regularly visit urban areas, usually without being noticed."1

In addition, in an earlier report Utah Division of Wildlife Resources officials stated that because of its physical location and the presence of ravines, mountain lions routinely wander into the town of Sandy, Utah, even if not into the downtown core.

Many residents feel UDWR should be prepared and better able to handle mountain lion encounters. More training and equipment for wildlife officers in the field are needed, as well as a plan for how and where to relocate lost lions.

1 Beier, Riley and Sauvajot (2010). Chapter 11 "Mountain Lions" in Urban Carnivores (p. 145). Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

See Fox's coverage of the event:



Just a few weeks prior and less than twenty miles away, UDWR euthanized a lion after tranquilizing and capturing the cat in a garage. Read more about that incident.
(Article #1532) To read the actual news story click here...

Another Utah Lion Tranquilized - UDWR Lets This One Live - Maybe (6/27/2014)
In a strange case of deja-vu, the second mountain lion in just 11 days wandered into another Utah "Front Range" community where it was tranquilized and captured by officers of the Utah Department of Wildlife Resources (UDWR). The only difference is this time, they let the lion live.

The mountain lion was first sighted just before 8:00 am in the downtown area of Sandy, Utah. Responding police officers spotted the lion ambling across 9400 South towards the Ruby River Steakhouse where it tried to find shelter.

A short while later the lion leaped from its hidey-hole and tried to run away when it became alarmed over the gathering police officers and spectators. A police officer fired a shot at it as it ran away, but missed.

As it left the Mall area, the lion ran east and onto the TRAX light rail lines near 9100 South and 150 East before hiding under some bushes once again.

Just before 10:00, police and UDWR officers were able to close in on the lion and shoot it with a tranquilizer dart.

Sandy Police Sgt. Dean Carriger said the female mountain lion was in good condition and after being checked out by UDWR, the animal was to be released back into the wild.

If so, this will be a very different outcome from the June 17th incident in the nearby community of American Fork, where a young, male mountain lion found hiding in a garage was tranquilized and captured by UDWR officers. That lion was later euthanized because it was captured in a "zero tolerance" zone, and supposedly acting abnormally because it was seen by humans in the daytime.
(Article #1531) To read the actual news story click here...

Study Shows Wolves Crowd Lions Out of Premier Territories (6/24/2014)
According to research carried out by scientists as part of Wyoming's Teton Cougar Project, the existence of an aggressive competitor, such as wolves, on the landscape adversely affects local mountain lion populations.

The eleven-year study, published in the Journal of Zoology in late May, found that mountain lions, especially females, established their core territories as far from wolves as possible and will go out of their way to avoid the canines.

According to the Project's team leader Mark Elbroch, "Because wolves select top-tier territories with the most available prey, subordinate mountain lions are being pushed away from the most productive parts of the landscape. There is a reduction in habitat in the sense that they are prioritizing habitat differently."

The study's findings also state that "Spatial displacement between wolves and cougars has been noted in several other studies. This, no doubt, limits the availability of quality habitat in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, which has implications for juvenile cougar survival, juvenile dispersal success and overall cougar population dynamics."
(Article #1529) To read the actual news story click here...

Lost Lion Caught After Wandering Around East Sacramento Neighborhood (6/23/2014)
Please note: MLF's coverage of the following story is based primarily on an article that originally appeared in the Sacramento Bee.

After a day-long, self-guided tour of residences on the east side of Sacramento, a young, lost mountain lion eventually sought shelter in the "jungle-like" backyard of 74-year old Mabel Furr's North Oak Park home at the corner of 32nd and X streets, where he was captured late Saturday evening by members of the Sacramento police force and California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW).

The one-and-a-half year old male mountain lion, weighing approximately 70 lb, was first spotted around 1:35 a.m. early Saturday morning near 58th and M streets. Sacramento police officers checked the area at that time, but were unable to locate the lion.

Almost two hours later, a report of a second sighting came in from a motorist who was following the big cat south on 36th Street from Folsom Boulevard. At around 4:00 a.m. while responding to that call, a Sacramento police lieutenant spotted the big cat at 36th and R streets. He watched it jump over a chain-link fence near Highway 50 and lost sight of it. At that time, animal-control officers were notified, and an automated call went out to area residents advising them of the potential hazard.

Shortly thereafter, with the coming of dawn, the lion must have gone to ground, because he wasn't spotted again until 10:21 p.m. Saturday evening, when a caller reported seeing it at 32nd and X streets. Police officers responding to the call eventually spotted the scared lion hiding inside Mrs. Furr's fenced yard while canvassing the area.

The officer notified Mrs. Furr of the situation and asked her to remain in her home while additional officers arrived to secure the area and they all waited for a CDFW warden to arrive.

"He said, 'There's a mountain lion in your backyard. Stay inside and do not come out,' " said Mrs. Furr. "I was kind of shocked but not afraid."

In fact, Mrs. Furr said that when she heard on the news earlier Saturday that the animal was last spotted at 36th and R streets, she half hoped that she would see it. "I thought to myself maybe he'll come down this way and take refuge in my yard," she said. "I was surprised that it came true."

It took a while for the four police officers to spot the animal in her backyard, which has dense foliage, but it was eventually seen hiding between a stack of tomato cages and a large saguaro cactus. "It was dark, and they were using flashlights," Mrs. Furr said. "It would be hard to find him."

"I think he had a rough night, and he didn't have anything to eat or drink, so he was willing to go with them and go back to the wild," she said.
Photo of officer over sedated mountain lion.
Mrs. Furr said the police officers and the warden placed the animal on a piece of canvas and carried him out to a grassy spot next to the sidewalk. She said the mountain lion had its legs tied up, and she watched as the warden put some drops into the animal's eyes before blindfolding him.

"He didn't seem that big," she said. "I though he was about 60 pounds."

While Mrs. Furr didn't see the actual capture, her neighbor Ciana Yniguez, 52, had a front-row seat from a living room window overlooking Furr's garden.

Ms. Yniguez and a friend, Eric Navarro, 41, had just returned to Yniguez's home shortly after 11 p.m. Saturday. "We happened to turn on the TV and we hear that a mountain lion was spotted by police at 32nd and X streets," she said. "We looked out the window and we saw all the lights shining."

Ms. Yniguez said the police had been looking for the animal up in the trees before finally spotting it on the ground, about 15 feet from her open window. Mr. Navarro had wanted her to close the window, but she didn't think that was necessary. "I didn't hear it make any noise," she said.

She said she heard a soft "pop" when the mountain lion was tranquilized, and the officers waited for some time to make sure that the animal was out. She said she couldn't see more than a glimpse of its head when officers took the animal out of Mrs. Furr's back yard.

"It's a jungle out there," she said. "He found the perfect yard."

Ms. Yniguez said that since it was late, she didn't go outside to see the tranquilized animal. But she said she found the whole experience exciting.

"It's just another night in Oak Park," she said. "I don't know how he got so far away, that he was able to travel from east Sacramento to here without anyone seeing him. It's pretty unbelievable."

According to Tim Dunbar, Executive Director of the Mountain Lion Foundation, it's theorized that the young dispersing lion arrived in the Metropolitan Sacramento area by following the American River parkway out of the foothills east of town.

"If this incident had happened just a little over a year ago, the antics of that teenage lion would have resulted in his death as a threat to the public safety," said Mr. Dunbar. "It's thanks to Senator Hill, the successful passage of Senate Bill 132, the efforts of the Department of Fish and Wildlife to change policy, the professionalism of responding law enforcement officers and the support of the public that non-threatening lions such as this one can be given a second chance."

"Mountain Lion Foundation is thankful for the way the Sacramento police department and CDFW handled this unusual, and potentially life threatening situation without resorting to lethal measures."

The young mountain lion was moved out of town and released into the wild by a California Department of Fish and Wildlife warden after it recovered from the drugs used to tranquilize it.


(Article #1528) To read the actual news story click here...

Florida's Panther Population Increasing - Slowly (6/19/2014)
Citing a 10 percent increase in kitten survival, Gil McRae, the director of the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's research institute announced that new estimates put the number of Florida panthers in the wild at somewhere around 180 animals.

Even though they have been on the Federal Endangered Species List since the mid-1960s, the Florida panther almost became extinct in the early 1990s, but a concerted conservation effort by state and federal wildlife officials have turned that death spiral around and studies now show that the population has increased steadily since 1995.

Even though the population is showing signs of improvement, the Florida panther will remain on the Federal Endangered Species List until there are two separate populations of at least 240 lions. To make that happen, the species needs to reestablish itself in additional Southeastern states.

The greatest challenge facing the Florida panther at this time is the need for more space. As the population tries to grow, it comes increasingly in contact with human development; and these interactions unfortunately can be fatal for the cats.

So far this year, 18 Florida panthers have died as a result of being struck by vehicles on Florida roads.

For more information about Florida panthers, visit MLF's Florida Page. (Article #1527) To read the actual news story click here...

Utah DWR Officials Order the Euthanasia of Captured Lion (6/18/2014)
Tuesday, officials from the Utah Department of Wildlife Resources euthanized a scared, helpless mountain lion that had taken refuge in a garage in the community of American Fork, Utah.

The lion was first discovered around 12:30 pm by a teenage boy who had entered his family's garage. When confronted by the human, the young mountain lion snarled at the boy and backed further into a dark corner of the garage in a vain attempt to escape. American Fork police officers and a local animal control officer were dispatched to the scene to contain the animal.

When Josee Seamons, a wildlife technician for the Utah Department of Wildlife Resources arrived at the site, he found the young lion cowering under some shelves waiting for the humans to leave and darkness to fall.

"I think it was more scared than the people were," Seamons said. "The kid kind of scared it so it really wasn't going to go anywhere."

Seamons eventfully shot the mountain lion with a tranquilizer dart and removed it from the garage.

Claiming that they had to follow department policies (the Wasatch Front is a "no tolerance zone" for mountain lions) and trying to justify their actions by stating that spotting the lion in the middle of the day was a clear sign of abnormal behavior, officials from the Utah Department of Wildlife Resources ordered the captured lion to be euthanized.
(Article #1526) To read the actual news story click here...

Illinois' Lion Protection Bill Passes the Legislature (6/10/2014)
Senate Bill 3049, introduced by Senator Linda Holmes (D - Aurora) has successfully passed out of the Illinois Legislature and is now sitting on the Governor's desk awaiting his signature.

SB 3049, which passed on the last day of session, places Gray wolves, American black bears, and mountain lions on Illinois' protected species list, and eliminates the current practice of allowing people to shoot them on sight with no questions asked.

Illinois' indigenous mountain lion population was extirpated sometime around 1855. For several years now dispersing males from nearby western states have attempted to return to Illinois to find a mate and establish a territory of their own, but so far all have died as a result of human activities.

If passed, it's hoped that SB 3049's protections will allow the natural reintroduction of Puma concolor someday in Illinois' near future.

Illinois residents are encouraged to contact Governor Quinn and ask him to sign SB 3049 and give mountain lions the help they need to reestablish themselves on a small part of their historic range.

Governor Pat Quinn
Office of the Governor
207 State House
Springfield, IL 62706
217-782-0244

or click here to email him


For more information, view MLF's SB 3049 Action Alert.
(Article #1525) To read the actual news story click here...

Florida's Big Cypress National Preserve Safe For Now (6/2/2014)
Late last week, a federal judge denied the National Park Service's request to dismiss a case brought by the Center for Biological Diversity, the Sierra Club and WildEarth Guardians to reduce damaging off-road vehicle use in Florida's Big Cypress National Preserve.

The suit asserts the Park Service violated the Endangered Species Act, its own off-road vehicle management plan, the National Environmental Policy Act and other laws by designating hundreds of miles of new trails for off-road vehicle use in the preserve without first assessing potentially destructive impacts on endangered Florida panthers and other rare and vanishing Florida species, as well as other sensitive water, soil and vegetative resources.

The ruling denied the government's request to dismiss or delay the case, finding that the Park Service had not yet complied with the law. The court admonished the Park Service for making a "determination about opening the . . . trails before performing any NEPA analysis and now offer[ing] to follow [with] NEPA after the fact," and found that "NPS left the Preserve open to potential damaging impact[s]" by failing to adhere to its legal duties.

"This ruling should be the death knell for the Park Service's mismanagement of this public resource," said Jaclyn Lopez, a Florida attorney with the Center for Biological Diversity. "The Park Service's mission is to manage these wild areas for wildlife and plants as well as people."

"The National Park Service should heed Judge Chappell's ruling by sticking to its mandate to preserve the natural landscape at Big Cypress and the endangered wildlife it shelters," said Frank Jackalone, Sierra Club's senior organizing manager.

"The endangered Florida panther, a symbol of Florida's original wildness, has an enormous number of threats to navigate in South Florida. This decision, hopefully, will ensure that national park mismanagement of off-road vehicle recreation isn't one of those threats," said Sarah Peters, a program attorney with WildEarth Guardians.
(Article #1524) To read the actual news story click here...

Dispersing Lion Winds up in Mountain View Garage (5/7/2014)
On Tuesday evening, a mountain lion wandered into the city of Mountain View, California. Located in the southern portion of the San Francisco bay area, the outskirts of Mountain View are home to mountain lions, though they are rarely spotted by local residents.

Around 6:30 p.m. reports began coming in to the local police station of a mountain lion near California Street and Rengstroff Avenue. While the vast majority of reported lion sightings turn out to be other animals, one resident took a photo with a cell phone which allowed the police sergeant to confirm it was in fact a mountain lion.

Mountain View Police began searching the area for the cat. They asked neighbors to stay indoors and vacate nearby Rengstroff Park. Around 7:00 the lost lion had wandered into the garage of an apartment complex. Officers shut the parking garage gate and waited for California Department of Fish and Wildlife officers to arrive.

Problems with the first warden's tranquilizer gun and a power outage complicated matters. After a few hours a second wildlife officer was on scene and sedated the lion, who had remained hiding under a van the whole time.

After capturing the drowsy lion, officers noticed he was wearing a tracking collar and is one of the cats being monitored by the UC Santa Cruz Puma Project. Known by researchers as 46M, this young 110-pound male had just left his mother and is in search of his own home range — a chunk of habitat with deer, water, female lions and no other big male cats.

"Unfortunately, instead of finding his way into a nice patch of unoccupied woods, his wanderings took him into Mountain View!" researchers noted this afternoon on their website.

"Imagine his surprise when he probably thought he could push through dispersed human development to get to more forest that was surely on the other side, only to find himself surrounded by cars, buildings, dogs, and people."

Thankfully, 46M was transported from the parking garage back into the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains.

Under a new California law that went into place in January 2014, a mountain lion can only be killed for public safety if it is acting aggressively towards the public. Simply being in the wrong place or becoming agitated when first responders approach is no longer a death sentence for a mountain lion. Non-threatening lions must be relocated back to the wild, or given the time and space to do so on their own.




ABC 7 News' coverage of the Mountain View mountain lion, 46M, on Tuesday, May 6, 2014.
(Article #1523) To read the actual news story click here...

South Dakota Wardens Relocate Treed Mountain Lion Kitten (4/24/2014)
South Dakota Game, Fish & Parks (SDGFP) wardens made the right decision Wednesday when they decided that a treed, six-month old, 42 lb. mountain lion kitten was not a threat to humans and decided to tranquilize and relocate the animal instead of complying with the Department's zero-tolerance policy of lethal removal.

The young male lion, who was first spotted by a Spearfish couple enjoying an early morning cup of coffee on their deck, apparently had been treed by a dog sometime before and believed that it was safe and unseen high in its aerial perch.

According to SDGFP Game Warden Mike Apland, a 23-year veteran with the Department, "It was just hanging out, thinking it was concealed there."

Apland, who usually responds to three or four mountain lion sightings annually, said that he usually has only two options: "remove the lion or put it down."

"Our primary concern is always public safety," he said. "There weren't really any other residences in the immediate area and the lion wasn't showing any aggressive behavior."

After surveying the scene, Apland said he contacted a state biologist and requested he come to Spearfish with a tranquilizer gun.

"The lion was darted, and we waited six to seven minutes for the drug to take effect, and it did," Apland said. "Then we removed the lion from the tree. He was sleeping soundly by then."

Apland and the biologist loaded the slumbering lion kitten into the back of the warden's truck and took him several miles away to a wooded area.

"Everything went extremely well," Apland said. "Once we do relocate, we stay on scene and make sure they are up and awake before we leave. Smaller cats come out of the drugs fairly quickly. About a half hour after relocation, this cat didn't want to be around us anymore. Hopefully, this ingrains in him the attitude that they don't want to be near humans or any residential area."

No one has yet explained exactly why a six-month old mountain lion kitten would apparently be out on its own, but chances are fairly good that it's an orphan struggling to survive who wandered too close to humans.
(Article #1522) To read the actual news story click here...

Hollywood's Iconic Mountain Lion P-22 Sickened by Rat Poison (4/18/2014)
Last year, National Geographic put a public face to Southern California's lion population when it photographed P-22 walking in front of the Hollywood sign at night. At that time, the animal was majestic looking and in apparent good health.

However, it was announced yesterday that National Park Service (NPS) lion researchers discovered in March that P-22 is now sick with mange, a parasitic disease of the hair and skin which may be the result of rodenticide poisoning.

"You can see on his face that he's sort of scraggly, and his whiskers are sort of scraggly, and his tail is pretty scrawny," said Dr. Seth Riley, a NPS researcher working out of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area.

"Anti-coagulant rodenticides are designed to kill rodents by thinning the blood and preventing clotting. When people put these bait traps outside their homes or businesses, they may not realize that the poison works its way up the food chain, becoming more lethal as the dose accumulates in larger animals."

Biologists are still trying to figure out the connection between rat poison and getting mange in animals. It's pretty rare for mountain lions to even develop mange. There are only two known cases in the past 12 years, however both those lions ended up dying from rat poisoning.

P-22 is currently back in Griffith Park. He has been treated with a topical treatment - selamectin - but it's unsure whether the treatment will work, or if he'll ever fully recover.

Photos of P-22 before and after mange.

LEFT: Steve Winter's famous photo of P-22 appeared in the December 2013 issue of National Geographic.

RIGHT: During a recent capture P-22 displayed symptoms of mange and tested positive to poison exposure.

NOTE:

Second-generation rodenticides will shortly be removed from the consumer market in California. Too many owls, hawks, foxes and bobcats, and now mountain lions are dying every year from these poisonous materials.

"The best way to keep rodents out of your home, garage or any building is by blocking all the access points rats and mice may use to enter," said California Department of Fish and Wildlife Environmental Scientist Stella McMillin. "It can be as easy as stuffing steel wool into small holes or using a canned foam filler like 'Great Stuff' sold at hardware stores."

Remove things that attract animals, especially food sources such as pet food or children's snacks, that are left outside or accessible to rodents indoors. Rodents aren't the only critters food attracts. It also attracts ants, yellow-jackets, raccoons, opossums and - if you're in coyote, bear or lion country - even more dangerous wild diners.

Make sure your garbage is secured in a solid container with a tight lid and remove anything rodents might use for shelter, such as wood piles. You can discourage voles, which like to "tunnel" in high grass, by keeping your lawn trimmed. Grass cut at two inches is tall enough to conserve some soil moisture but short enough to provide poor shelter for the vole species in California.

If you still see evidence of rodents, use traps to eliminate the existing rats and mice in or around your home. Traps pose little danger to humans and pets when placed in the small spaces rodents frequent. They are also effective, inexpensive and have no harmful side effects. There are also some environmentally friendly pest control companies that use exclusion and trapping methods rather than poison to keep your home free of rodents.

If you take these actions, still have a rodent problem and feel you must use some kind of poison, please use rodenticide products that DO NOT contain the active ingredients brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difethialone or difenacoum. These are the second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) most likely to kill non-target animals.

The California Department of Pesticide Regulation's decision to restrict those four chemicals is based on decades of monitoring studies and mortality incidents. Every monitoring study done in the last 20 years has found widespread exposure of predators and scavengers with SGARs, most commonly brodifacoum.

(Article #1521) To read the actual news story click here...

Montana's Hunters Accuse MFWP of Exaggerating Lion Population Numbers (4/15/2014)
In a strange turn around, some of Montana's mountain lion hunters are accusing the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) of increasing next year's lion hunting quota to satisfy the demands of hunting outfitters.

What touched off accusations of over-hunting was MFWP's newly released mountain lion quota for the upcoming 2014-15 hunting season. MFWP defended its new quota of an additional 37 lions based on the questionable findings of their five-month long Bitterroot DNA study, and a separate study which found that mountain lions were responsible for a major portion of elk calf mortalities in the Bitterroot valley.

Because of the bitterroot elk study, MFWP changed the second half of this year's lion hunt for that region by increasing the quota and opening it to anyone with a lion tag, as opposed to limiting it to only those with a permit to hunt those specific hunting districts in the Bitterroot.

Outraged Bitterroot lion hunters charged that the end result was a large influx of hunters from outside the region and the killing of young lions simply to satisfy outfitted clients. The additional hunting pressure was unwarranted, they said, because there are few of the big cats left.

"They're not there," said Chuck Pyles, who lives along the West Fork of the Bitterroot River. "I hunt almost every day and they're not there. I would like to see you lay off the females, lower the quota, because if not, we're going to have a problem."

Veteran hunter Grover Hedrick said he drove 132 miles of roads and only found five adult lion tracks in the Bitterroot. "That's not very many," he said.

The MFWP study that estimated lion numbers for the region was also criticized as deficient on many fronts by the hunters.

"What we got was keyboard cougars and paper pumas," said Rod Bullis.

Retired Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife research scientist Gary Koehler called the baseline population a best guess in a study that couldn't be replicated for verification. "This is a dangerous extrapolation from an untested protocol."

Koehler also noted that the work the study cited in Washington utilizing DNA samples is still being peer reviewed and tested.

Montana's 2013-14 mountain lion hunt resulted in the deaths of 518 lions.
(Article #1520) To read the actual news story click here...

Chambers' Fight to End Nebraska Lion Hunt Not Yet Over! (4/8/2014)
Unwilling to accept the betrayal of two state Senators that thwarted his attempt to override Governor Heineman's veto, Senator Ernie Chambers proved once again that he was a bare knuckles kind of political fighter and added scores of amendments to at least 11 pending bills, including some that would replace their language with his mountain lion hunting ban.

With yesterday being the 56th day of the 60-day session, Nebraska lawmakers are facing a backlog of bills and little time to waste.

"Give me my lions and you will be rid of me," said Senator Chambers. "Time is on my side. Yes it is. We are now at the point in the session where everything is compressed into a very small amount of time. I can take the rest of this session if I want to. I have been treated in a way that has been very shabby."

One way or another, Friday will prove who has the most resolve amongst Nebraska lawmakers—a man of principle, or flunkies of special interest hunting groups.
(Article #1519) To read the actual news story click here...

Two Senators Renege on Promise - Nebraska Lion Hunt Still a Go (4/7/2014)
Last Thursday, Nebraska legislators failed for a second time to override Governor Heineman's veto of Senator Ernie Chambers' Legislative Bill 671 which banned mountain lion hunting.

Coming one day after the first attempt to override the veto fell six votes short, Thursday's 28-21 vote drew an angry response from Senator Chambers who believed he had secured the necessary 30 votes needed to enact the measure into law.

Calling them "sniveling, knock-kneed, pigeon-toed cowards," Chambers blasted other Senators for bowing to pressure from hunting groups that oppose the bill.

Two Senators in particular, Russ Karpisek and Tom Carlson, drew Chambers' ire for switching their promised vote at the last moment.

Senator Russ Karpisek of Wilber acknowledged Thursday that he had agreed to vote in favor of the veto-override so that Chambers wouldn't try to block some of his bills. Karpisek said he voted against the proposal when it appeared that it was going to fail regardless, but he apologized for reversing course.

"I blew it," Karpisek said. "I don't like the bill, but I did give my word, and I broke it. I'm pretty ashamed of myself. I don't like to win that way, and I don't think I've ever done that before. I made a split-second decision. It was wrong."

The second Senator that Chambers had thought was a "yes" vote was state Senator Tom Carlson, of Holdrege. Senator Chambers said Carlson initially agreed to support the measure, but later backed away.

Carlson, a Republican candidate for governor, said he had agreed to "reconsider" his opposition to Chambers' bill before the override vote, so that Chambers wouldn't oppose other legislation. But Carlson said he never told Chambers he would support it, and he ended up deciding to maintain his opposition.

Mountain lions are native to Nebraska, but were eradicated by early settlers sometime around 1890. The first modern-day sighting of a lion occurred approximately one hundred years later. There have been no verified mountain lions attacks on humans, pets or livestock since the species returned in 1991.

Nebraska approved its mountain lion hunting season in 2012, even though fewer than two dozen mountain lions are believed to currently reside in the state.
(Article #1518) To read the actual news story click here...

Nebraska Lion Hunt To Stay - For Now (4/2/2014)
Today, in a 24-21 vote, Nebraska state legislators failed to override the Governor Heineman's veto of Legislative Bill 671. LB 671, sponsored by Senator Ernie Chambers (D-Omaha) would have overturned a 2012 law authorizing the recreational hunting of Nebraska's mountain lions.

During the fight to pass LB 671, Senator Chambers repeatedly voiced the opinion of many in the scientific community that the fewer than two-dozen mountain lions currently residing in the state pose no real threat to humans.

Unfortunately the fear of LB 671 being just the first step in restricting a Nebraskan's right to shoot animals for fun overrode reasonable wildlife management practices.


To learn more, visit MLF's Mountain Lions in Nebraska page or review our LB 671 Action Alert.

The fight is far from over. Donate to our special Midwestern Mountain Lion Defense Fund to help us continue mountain lion conservation programs in Nebraska.
(Article #1516) To read the actual news story click here...

CA Senate Bill 132 at Work - Female Lion Successfully Relocated from Mission Viejo Neighborhood (3/31/2014)
Last Wednesday, California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) wardens and local animal control officers tranquilized and captured a mountain lion that had been spotted several times during the day near a hillside, gated retirement community in Mission Viejo, California.

According to CDFW spokesman Andrew Hughan, the mountain lion was a 70-lb female, believed to be 2 to 3 years old and appeared healthy.

Last year, local researchers with the Southern California Mountain Lion Project documented an adult female with large cubs near this area. The lion relocated by CDFW on Wednesday may have been one of the dispersing offspring, but because she was not tagged we don't know for sure.

The sedated mountain lion, named by one of the Mission Viejo residents as "Mabel," was transported to nearby Cleveland National Forest where she was later released back into the wild.

The release site was still within a typical home range size for an adult female lion. So if she is an established territorial female, she was not displaced from her home. And if she was a younger female still in search of a home range, she is now farther away from the city and on a much better path for a dispersing lion.

This was a win-win situation for everyone — human and feline — in the community.

Thanks to Senate Bill 132 and new policies within the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, wardens are receiving more training and tools for resolving lion encounters without bullets. And because of opportunities to tag along in the field with the local mountain lion research project, some wildlife officers near Orange County have become fairly comfortable working with lions.

CDFW advises the public that if anyone encounters a mountain lion they should remain calm, try to appear larger and make a lot of noise. If the animal is in a wilderness area, try and let it be. If it's in a populated area, residents should call 911 and Fish and Wildlife's Cal-Tip line at 888-334-2258.

Under the new California law, only mountain lions exhibiting aggressive behavior towards the pubic can be killed for safety purposes.

Please consider sending a quick email to CDFW Director Bonham (Director@wildlife.ca.gov) thanking his department and the wildlife officers for their professionalism in properly handling the Mission Viejo lion encounter.

Photos of mountain lion relocated on Wednesday.


A female mountain lion wakes up in the Cleveland National Forest after she was sedated and removed from the backyard of a Mission Viejo home Wednesday evening. Photos courtesy of California Department of Fish and Wildlife.

PS - MLF is looking into the killing of a one-year old mountain lion for "aggressive behavior" in the nearby Whiting Ranch Wilderness Park over the weekend.
(Article #1515) To read the actual news story click here...

Relocating Mountain Lion Was Not an Option (3/30/2014)
The following story by Penny Arevalo is a repost from the Lake Forest Patch.


A state wildlife expert reacts to criticism that a warden shot and killed a young mountain lion on Sunday at Whiting Ranch Wilderness Park. A necropsy is being done.

Relocating the mountain lion that bared its teeth at a 5-year-old boy in Whiting Ranch Wilderness Park on Sunday was not an option, because the roughly 1-year-old, 60-pound male had already shown itself to be a public threat, a state wildlife official said today.

"If we were to move that animal, what we're taking is an animal that has shown to be a public safety threat, and we're moving it somewhere else where the same thing may occur again," said Dan Sforza, the assistant chief of enforcement with the state Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Wildlife experts said the mountain lion, apparently separated for its mother, was likely still learning how to hunt and showed no fear of humans. When it started acting aggressively toward the boy, Jackson, someone threw a rock at it, but the cat did not retreat, according to Madison Smith, who was hiking with her 5-year-old son and 7-year-old daughter.

"As soon as Jackson moves back to me, the lion moved into a crouching position, bares its teeth and is ready to pounce on him," she said.

When wildlife officials responded to the report, the mountain lion was found in the same spot on the Borrego Trail where it had been snarling at Smith and her children.

Department of Fish and Wildlife officials made a decision to shoot the cat when they were unable to scare it off. That section of the Borrego Trail is not far from Foothill Ranch Elementary School.

A necropsy is being done on the mountain lion. (Article #1550) To read the actual news story click here...

Nebraska Governor Vetoes LB 671 - Wants Lion Hunt to Continue (3/28/2014)
Claiming that it might be unconstitutional and citing Article XV, Section 25 of the Nebraska Constitution which states that "hunting, fishing, and harvesting of wildlife shall be a preferred means of managing and controlling wildlife," as justification for his action, Nebraska Governor, Dave Heineman vetoed Legislative Bill 671 earlier today.

LB 671, introduced by Senator Ernie Chambers (D-Omaha) would have repealed recent legislation which authorized the recreational hunting of mountain lions in Nebraska.

In his letter to the legislature explaining his actions, Governor Heineman said the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission should have the power to manage the mountain lion population for the health and safety of residents, and that "removing the agency's authority to manage mountain lions through hunting at this time is poor public policy."

Legislative bill 671, which originally passed out of the legislature with a 28 to 13 vote, now goes back to the legislature where Senator Chambers will need 30 votes to override the Governor's veto.

There are less than two dozen mountain lions currently residing in Nebraska and despite assurances to the contrary from the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, most biologists disagree with that state's decision to hunt such a small lion population.

Nebraska's mountain lion advocates are encouraged to contact their state legislator and demand that they vote to support Senator Chambers and override Governor Heineman's outrageous veto of Legislative Bill 671.


In your letter or telephone call, please point out:

  • Sport hunting is a terrible way to manage mountain lion populations.
  • Nebraska's mountain lion population is far too small to withstand a hunting season.
  • Over hunting eliminated the mountain lion from Nebraska a hundred years ago. We must learn from this mistake and protect the returning cats.
  • Sport hunting could trigger conditions that lead to more conflicts between the lions, livestock and people.
  • The majority of residents in Nebraska want a healthy mountain lion population and the best way to achieve this is by stopping the hunt and passing LB 671.


View the LB 671 Action Alert for more information.
(Article #1514) To read the actual news story click here...

Illinois Attempts to Protect its Mountain Lions with SB 3049 (3/27/2014)
The Illinois Senate Agriculture Committee took an important step recently towards protecting mountain lions that wander into that state by voting 6-0 in favor of Illinois Senate Bill 3049, authored by Senator Linda Holmes (D-Aurora). Senate Bill 3049 would add wolves, black bears, and mountain lions to the Illinois Wildlife Code thereby giving them "protected species" status.

SB 3049 came into being after a November, 2013 incident when a family near Morrison, Illinois asked state conservation officers to kill a mountain lion hiding under an outbuilding on their farm.

According to Senator Holmes she heard an outcry from animal lovers in her area who embrace the rarity of a wild mountain lion.

"For many years we didn't have them here in Illinois," Holmes said. "Now we're starting to find that some populations of these animals are coming into Illinois, and they are just being shot, without any recourse whatsoever."

At this time, mountain lions have no legal status in Illinois, and thereby no protection. Anyone who sees a mountain lion can kill it and not face any repercussions other than societies' moral condemnation. SB 3049, as originally written would add black bears, gray wolves, and mountain lions to the state's list of protected species.

However, recent amendments added by the Illinois Farm Bureau would restrict those protections and allow landowners or their tenants to legally kill any of these three species if they cause or threaten to cause "harm or death to a human, livestock, domestic animals or structures. . . "

And even if members of these three species do not meet the threshold mentioned above, they can still be killed if designated a "nuisance" animal by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources.

In the end, despite the added depredation and nuisance clauses, Senate Bill 3049 is a giant first step towards protecting mountain lions in Illinois and should be supported by everyone who believes that there's room in this world for both humans and wildlife.
(Article #1513) To read the actual news story click here...

MLF Sues CDFW to Stop Unauthorized Mountain Lion Research (3/25/2014)
The Mountain Lion Foundation (MLF) served the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) with a Writ of Mandamus yesterday, demanding that the Department stop all unauthorized mountain lion research being carried out by the National Park Service (NPS) in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area (SMMNRA).

In early 2011, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife determined that it did not have the legal authority to authorize mountain lion research in California. CDFW approached the Mountain Lion Foundation with a request for assistance in changing the law.

Working with many of California's top mountain lion researchers and Senator (then Assemblymember) Bill Monning (D-AD27; SD17), MLF helped write and pass California Assembly Bill 1784 which passed unanimously and was signed into law by Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. on July 13, 2012. The new law (Fish and Game Code 4810) took affect immediately under an urgency statute clause.

AB 1784 was written not only to provide researchers with protection from the penalties and restrictions found in California Fish and Game Code 4800, it was also designed to protect mountain lions from inappropriate research such as has taken place in other states where lions were killed to determine if that might increase resident elk and deer herds.

Since AB 1784's passage, several mountain lion research projects have received the proper Scientific Collecting Permits from CDFW. However, researchers from the National Park Service decided not to comply with the new law. In September 2013, MLF brought this fact to the attention of officials within CDFW.

For the past six months, the Mountain Lion Foundation has tried to resolve this situation amicably, but as of today the NPS has not complied with state law, nor has the Department enforced the law by stopping the capture and handling of mountain lions by researchers in the SMMNRA until the proper permits are obtained.

MLF considers the research being carried out by scientists in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area to be important work and will be valuable in better understanding and protecting the local mountain lion population. But everyone has to obey the law, and CDFW needs to fulfill its obligation by enforcing the law.

It's MLF's greatest hope that the situation will be quickly resolved by CDFW requiring NPS researchers to either comply with all of California's mountain lion laws (Fish and Game Codes 4800 - 4810) or by providing CDFW with a proper claim of Federal preemption explaining why they need not do so.
(Article #1512) To read the actual news story click here...

Nebraska's Countdown Begins - 5 Days to Go! (3/24/2014)
Despite a last minute filibuster by the bill's opponents, Nebraska's LB 671, a legislative bill by state senator Ernie Chambers to permanently end the state's mountain lion hunting season just two years after it was approved, successfully passed out of the state senate with a 28 to 13 vote today.

LB 671 now heads to Governor Dave Heineman's desk, who has up to five days to act on the bill. Jen Rae Wang, the governor's communications director, declined to say Monday what action Governor Heineman might take.

The bill's supporters fell short of the 33 votes needed to pass LB 671 with an emergency clause, which would put it into effect as soon as Governor Heineman signs it or his veto is overridden. They were also unable to meet the 30-vote minimum that would be needed to override the Governor's veto.

LB 671's opponents argued the bill could open the door to national animal welfare groups that want to push for new hunting restrictions on other animals.

"I think that's a very slippery slope for us to be heading down," said Senator Beau McCoy, (R-Omaha) who was one of the Senators that participated in last week's filibuster.

Senator Ernie Chambers (D-Omaha) introduced the bill because he said the state has a duty to protect mountain lions, which are native to Nebraska but were virtually wiped out by settlers.

Nebraska's Game and Parks officials estimate that 22 mountain lions live in Nebraska's Pine Ridge area, where 102 hunting permits were issued during this year's lion hunt.


View our Action Alert to Pass LB671
Donate to our Midwest Mountain Lion Defense Fund
(Article #1511) To read the actual news story click here...

Survival Chances Getting Slimmer for Wyoming Lions (3/19/2014)
Dr. Mark Elbroch, principal investigator and project leader for Panthera's 13-year long Teton Cougar Project, recently gave a public presentation on his team's findings. The results of their research present a fairly bleak picture of the sustainability of Wyoming's mountain lion population and show the survival rate of Wyoming's mountain lions has dropped drastically over the past decade.

According to Dr. Elbroch, during the critical first six-months of life the greatest threat to a mountain lion kitten is predation. In Wyoming's case that threat primarily comes from wolves. At this time, out of 100 kittens, only 17 will survive until they are six-months old. After six-months, while the chances of predation from wolves and bears have been reduced, human hunters and starvation kill another 40 percent of young lions (10 of the 17). Ultimately, only 7 of the original 100 will reach dispersal age (18-months old). From there, each lion must find and defend its own home range while avoiding human hazards like roads, ranchers and hunters.

Survival rates were twice as high just a decade ago when the project began, but since that time appear to be on a steep decline due to wolf recovery and increased sport hunting of lions in the region.

The Wyoming Game and Fish Department (WGFD) refuses to publicly estimate exactly how many lions live in their state and bases its claim of a healthy, expanding lion population on public opinion: not scientific fact. This new scientific evidence of such a low kitten survival rate should bring into question the sustainability of Wyoming's mountain lion population.

There is still a lot to learn. But what we do know is the ever-increasing number of mountain lions killed by humans in Wyoming. In 1974 (the first year mountain lions were classified as a game animal in Wyoming) eight mountain lions were reported killed as part of regulated hunting. In 2012 (the last year of publicly available data) that annual hunting mortality number had increased to 305 lions.

So while Panthera's Teton Cougar Project may prove that wilderness is a dangerous environment for mountain lion kittens, the primary — and entirely preventable — threat towards the species still comes from humans. When will we finally put an end to this outdated and barbaric blood sport?

Mountain lion mortality graph showing steep increase in recent years.

Help us stop the hunt! Click here to join the Mountain Lion Foundation or renew your membership.
(Article #1510) To read the actual news story click here...

Symposium to Discuss Florida Panther Reintroduction (3/17/2014)
Citizens, Scientists, Agency Officials to Focus on Need for Additional Populations of Endangered Panthers

GAINESVILLE, Fla.— The first Florida Panther Symposium will convene Friday at the University of Florida's Levin College of Law. During the day-long event, members of the public, conservation groups, federal and state agencies, and experts on Florida panther biology and ecology will explore opportunities and obstacles for expanding the Florida panther's range. A top recovery goal for the Florida panther is establishing additional populations outside its currently occupied habit in South Florida.
Florida Panther by Wayne Lynch.
Schedule:

  • The symposium will take place from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Friday, March 21 at the University of Florida's Levin College of Law, 2500 SW 2nd Ave., Gainesville, Fla., in Room 285B.

  • Morning sessions, including a keynote speech by Joe Guthrie from the Florida Wildlife Corridor Expedition, are free and open to the public with an RSVP. Afternoon technical meeting is by invitation only.

  • A screening of the documentary on the Florida Wildlife Corridor Expedition will be held at 8 p.m. Friday in Room 285B.

  • On Saturday there will be a field trip to the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, which has been identified as a possible panther reintroduction site. Participants will gather at the University of Florida's Levin College of Law parking lot at 7 a.m. to carpool to the refuge. Contact Jaclyn Lopez at jlopez@biologicaldiversity.org by March 18 to attend the field trip.


Participants: The Florida Panther Symposium is hosted by the University of Florida Levin College of Law's Conservation Clinic and GreenLaw. It is organized and sponsored by the Center for Biological Diversity and the Sierra Club.

Presentations will be made by Darrell Land, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Florida panther team leader; Erin Meyers, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Partners Program private lands biologist; Tom Hoctor, University of Florida Center for Landscape Conservation planning director; Richard Hilsenbeck, director of Conservation Projects for The Nature Conservancy, St. Augustine, Fla.; Dan Smith, University of Central Florida Department of Biology research associate/adjunct graduate faculty; Jennifer Hecker, Conservancy of Southwest Florida; Sara Aicher, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge biologist; Chris Belden, retired Florida panther recovery coordinator; and Keynote presentation by Joe Guthrie, Florida Wildlife Corridor Expedition.

Note: The symposium has reached capacity, though space is available for members of the media.

"We're thrilled that so many Floridians care so much about recovering the Florida panther, and we're looking forward to developing a plan to put these amazing animals on a tangible path to recovery," said Jaclyn Lopez, a Florida-based attorney at the Center for Biological Diversity. "The Florida panther will always be at home in South Florida, but the big cats used to occur all over the Southeast and need more population centers if they're going to be secure in the long run."

"Bringing so many interested parties together to discuss the current status and the future of the Florida panther is inspiring," said Alexis Meyer, Florida panther critical habitat campaign organizer at the Sierra Club. "The future of the Florida panther depends on protecting and expanding their habitat, allowing for the species to regain its foothold as the apex species of Florida."

Media Contacts:
Jaclyn Lopez, (727) 490-9190, jlopez@biologicaldiversity.org
Alexis Meyer, (727) 490-8215, alexis.meyer@sierraclub.org
(Article #1509) To read the actual news story click here...

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